|United States Patent
||April 20, 1976
Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and
altering brain waves
Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject
whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to
the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a
waveform which is modulated by the subject's brain waves. The interference waveform which
is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver
where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for
visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The
demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is
transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.
||Malech; Robert G. (Plainview, NY)
||Dorne & Margolin Inc. (Bohemia, NY)
||August 5, 1974
|Current U.S. Class:
|Field of Search:
||128/1 C,1 R,2.1 B,2.1 R,419 R,422 R,420,404,2
R,2 S,2.05 R,2.05 V,2.05 F,2.06 R 340/248 A,258 A,258 B,258 D,229
References Cited [Referenced
U.S. Patent Documents
||Harden et al.
||Brown et al.
||Rabichev et al.
Primary Examiner: Kamm; William E.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Darby & Darby
What is claimed is:
1. Brain wave monitoring apparatus comprising means for producing a base frequency signal,
means for producing a first signal having a frequency related to that of the base
frequency and at a predetermined phase related thereto, means for transmitting both said
base frequency and said first signals to the brain of the subject being monitored, means
for receiving a second signal transmitted by the brain of the subject being monitored in
response to both said base frequency and said first signals, mixing means for producing
from said base frequency signal and said received second signal a response signal having a
frequency related to that of the base frequency, and means for interpreting said response
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 where said receiving means comprises means for isolating the
transmitted signals from the received second signals.
3. Apparatus as in claim 2 further comprising a band pass filter with an input
connected to said isolating means and an output connected to said mixing means.
4. Apparatus as in claim 1 further comprising means for amplifying said response
5. Apparatus as in claim 4 further comprising means for demodulating said amplified
6. Apparatus as in claim 5 further comprising interpreting means connected to the output
of said demodulator means.
7. Apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising means for producing an
electromagnetic wave control signal dependent on said response signal, and means for
transmitting said control signal to the brain of said subject.
8. Apparatus as in claim 7 wherein said transmitting means comprises means for
directing the electromagnetic wave control signal to a predetermined part of the brain.
9. A process for monitoring brain wave activity of a subject comprising the steps of
transmitting at least two electromagnetic energy signals of different frequencies
to the brain of the subject being monitored, receiving an electromagnetic energy signal
resulting from the mixing of said two signals in the brain modulated by the brain wave
activity and retransmitted by the brain in response to said transmitted energy signals,
and, interpreting said received signal.
10. A process as in claim 9 further comprising the step of transmitting a further
electromagnetic wave signal to the brain to vary the brain wave activity.
11. A process as in claim 10 wherein the step of transmitting the further signals
comprises obtaining a standard signal, comparing said received electromagnetic energy
signals with said standard signal, producing a compensating signal corresponding to the
comparison between said received electrogagnetic energy signals and the standard signal,
and transmitting the compensating signals to the brain of the subject being monitored.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Medical science has found brain waves to be a useful barometer of organic functions.
Measurements of electrical activity in the brain have been instrumental in detecting
physical and psychic disorder, measuring stress, determining sleep patterns, and
monitoring body metabolism.
The present art for measurement of brain waves employs electroencephalographs including
probes with sensors which are attached to the skull of the subject under study at points
proximate to the regions of the brain being monitored. Electrical contact between the
sensors and apparatus employed to process the detected brain waves is maintained by a
plurality of wires extending from the sensors to the apparatus. The necessity for
physically attaching the measuring apparatus to the subject imposes several limitations on
the measurement process. The subject may experience discomfort, particulary if the
measurements are to be made over extended periods of time. His bodily movements are
restricted and he is generally confined to the immediate vicinity of the measuring
apparatus. Furthermore, measurements cannot be made while the subject is conscious without
his awareness. The comprehensiveness of the measurements is also limited since the finite
number of probes employed to monitor local regions of brain wave activity do not permit
observation of the total brain wave profile in a single test.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to apparatus and a method for monitoring brain waves wherein
all components of the apparatus employed are remote from the test subject. More
specifically, high frequency transmitters are operated to radiate electromagnetic energy
of different frequencies through antennas which are capable of scanning the entire brain
of the test subject or any desired region thereof. The signals of different frequencies
penetrate the skull of the subject and impinge upon the brain where they mix to yield an
interference wave modulated by radiations from the brain's natural electrical activity.
The modulated interference wave is re-transmitted by the brain and received by an antenna
at a remote station where it is demodulated, and processed to provide a profile of the
suject's brain waves. In addition to passively monitoring his brain waves, the subject's
neurological processes may be affected by transmitting to his brain, through a
transmitter, compensating signals. The latter signals can be derived from the received and
processed brain waves.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
It is therefore an object of the invention to remotely monitor electrical activity in the
entire brain or selected local regions thereof with a single measurement.
Another object is the monitoring of a subject's brain wave activity through transmission
and reception of electromagnetic waves.
Still another object is to monitor brain wave activity from a position remote from
A further object is to provide a method and apparatus for affecting brain wave activity by
transmitting electromagnetic signals thereto.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Other and further objects of the invention will appear from the following description and
the accompanying drawings, which form part of the instant specification and which are to
be read in conjunction therewith, and in which like reference numerals are used to
indicate like parts in the various views;
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the interconnection of the components of the apparatus
of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing signal flow in one embodiment of the apparatus.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
Referring to the drawings, specifically FIG. 1, a high frequency transmitter 2 produces
and supplies two electromagnetic wave signals through suitable coupling means 14 to an
antenna 4. The signals are directed by the antenna 4 to the skull 6 of the subject 8 being
examined. The two signals from the antenna 4, which travel independently, penetrate the
skull 6 and impinge upon the tissue of the brain 10.
Within the tissue of the brain 10, the signals combine, much in the manner of a
conventional mixing process technique, with each section of the brain having a different
modulating action. The resulting waveform of the two signals has its greatest amplitude
when the two signals are in phase and thus reinforcing one another. When the signals are
exactly 180.degree. out of phase the combination produces a resultant waveform of minimum
amplitude. If the amplitudes of the two signals transmitted to the subject are maintained
at identical levels, the resultant interference waveform, absent influences of external
radiation, may be expected to assume zero intensity when maximum interference occurs, the
number of such points being equal to the difference in frequencies of the incident
signals. However, interference by radiation from electrical activity within the brain 10
causes the waveform resulting from interference of the two transmitted signals to vary
from the expected result, i.e., the interference waveform is modulated by the brain waves.
It is believed that this is due to the fact that brain waves produce electric charges each
of which has a component of electromagnetic radiation associated with it. The
electromagnetic radiation produced by the brain waves in turn reacts with the signals
transmitted to the brain from the external source.
The modulated interference waveform is re-transmitted from the brain 10, back through the
skull 6. A quantity of energy is re-transmitted sufficient to enable it to be picked up by
the antenna 4. This can be controlled, within limits, by adjusting the absolute and
relative intensities of the signals, originally transmitted to the brain. Of course, the
level of the transmitted energy should be kept below that which may be harmful to the
The antenna passes the received signal to a receiver 12 through the antenna electronics
14. Within the receiver the wave is amplified by conventional RF amplifiers 16 and
demodulated by conventional detector and modulator electronics 18. The demodulated wave,
representing the intra-brain electrical activity, is amplified by amplifiers 20 and the
resulting information in electronic form is stored in buffer circuitry 22. From the
buffers 22 the information is fed to a suitable visual display 24, for example one
employing a cathode ray tube, light emitting diodes, liquid crystals, or a mechanical
plotter. The information may also be channeled to a computer 26 for further processing and
analysis with the output of the computer displayed by heretofore mentioned suitable means.
In addition to channeling its information to display devices 24, the computer 26 can also
produce signals to control an auxiliary transmitter 28. Transmitter 28 is used to produce
a compensating signal which is transmitted to the brain 10 of the subject 8 by the antenna
4. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the compensating signal is derived as a
function of the received brain wave signals, although it can be produced separately. The
compensating signals affect electrical activity within the brain 10.
Various configurations of suitable apparatus and electronic circuitry may be utilized to
form the system generally shown in FIG. 1 and one of the many possible configurations is
illustrated in FIG. 2. In the example shown therein, two signals, one of 100 MHz and the
other of 210 MHz are transmitted simultaneously and combine in the brain 10 to form a
resultant wave of frequency equal to the difference in frequencies of the incident
signals, i.e., 110 MHz. The sum of the two incident frequencies is also available, but is
discarded in subsequent filtering. The 100 MHz signal is obtained at the output 37 of an
RF power divider 34 into which a 100 MHz signal generated by an oscillator 30 is injected.
The oscillator 30 is of a conventional type employing either crystals for fixed frequency
circuits or a tunable circuit set to oscillate at 100 MHz. It can be a pulse generator,
square wave generator or sinusoidal wave generator. The RF power divider can be any
conventional VHF, UHF or SHF frequency range device constructed to provide, at each of
three outputs, a signal identical in frequency to that applied to its input.
The 210 MHz signal is derived from the same 100 MHz oscillator 30 and RF power divider 34
as the 100 MHz signal, operating in concert with a frequency doubler 36 and 10 MHz
oscillator 32. The frequency doubler can be any conventional device which provides at its
output a signal with frequency equal to twice the frequency of a signal applied at its
input. The 10 MHz oscillator can also be of conventional type similar to the 100 MHz
oscillator herebefore described. A 100 MHz signal from the output 39 of the RF power
divider 34 is fed through the frequency doubler 36 and the resulting 200 MHz signal is
applied to a mixer 40. The mixer 40 can be any conventional VHF, UHF or SHF frequency
range device capable of accepting two input signals of differing frequencies and providing
two output signals with frequencies equal to the sum and difference in frequencies
respectively of the input signals. A 10 MHz signal from the oscillator 32 is also applied
to the mixer 40. The 200 MHz signal from the doubler 36 and the 10 MHz signal from the
oscillator 32 combine in the mixer 40 to form a signal with a frequency of 210 MHz equal
to the sum of the frequencies of the 200 MHz and 10 MHz signals.
The 210 MHz signal is one of the signals transmitted to the brain 10 of the subject being
monitored. In the arrangement shown in FIG. 2, an antenna 41 is used to transmit the 210
MHz signal and another antenna 43 is used to transmit the 100 MHz signal. Of course, a
single antenna capable of operating at 100 MHz and 210 MHz frequencies may be used to
transmit both signals. The scan angle, direction and rate may be controlled mechanically,
e.g., by a reversing motor, or electronically, e.g., by energizing elements in the antenna
in proper synchronization. Thus, the antenna(s) can be of either fixed or rotary
A second 100 MHz signal derived from output terminal 37 of the three-way power divider 34
is applied to a circulator 38 and emerges therefrom with a desired phase shift. The
circulator 38 can be of any conventional type wherein a signal applied to an input port
emerges from an output port with an appropriate phase shift. The 100 MHz signal is then
transmitted to the brain 10 of the subject being monitored via the antenna 43 as the
second component of the dual signal transmission. The antenna 43 can be of conventional
type similar to antenna 41 herebefore described. As previously noted, these two antennas
may be combined in a single unit.
The transmitted 100 and 210 MHz signal components mix within the tissue in the brain 10
and interfere with one another yielding a signal of a frequency of 110 MHz, the difference
in frequencies of the two incident components, modulated by electromagnetic emissions from
the brain, i.e., the brain wave activity being monitored. This modulated 110 MHz signal is
radiated into space.
The 110 MHz signal, modulated by brain wave activity, is picked up by an antenna 45 and
channeled back through the circulator 38 where it undergoes an appropriate phase shift.
The circulator 38 isolates the transmitted signals from the received signal. Any suitable
diplexer or duplexer can be used. The antenna 45 can be of conventional type similar to
antennas 41 and 43. It can be combined with them in a single unit or it can be separate.
The received modulated 110 MHz signal is then applied to a band pass filter 42, to
eliminate undesirable harmonics and extraneous noise, and the filtered 110 MHz signal is
inserted into a mixer 44 into which has also been introduced a component of the 100 MHz
signal from the source 30 distributed by the RF power divider 34. The filter 42 can be any
conventional band pass filter. The mixer 44 may also be of conventional type similar to
the mixer 40 herebefore described.
The 100 MHz and 110 MHz signals combine in the mixer 44 to yield a signal of frequency
equal to the difference in frequencies of the two component signals, i.e., 10 MHz still
modulated by the monitored brain wave activity. The 10 MHz signal is amplified in an IF
amplifier 46 and channeled to a demodulator 48. The IF amplifier and demodulator 48 can
both be of conventional types. The type of demodulator selected will depend on the
characteristics of the signals transmitted to and received from the brain, and the
information desired to be obtained. The brain may modulate the amplitude, frequency and/or
phase of the interference waveform. Certain of these parameters will be more sensitive to
corresponding brain wave characteristics than others. Selection of amplitude, frequency or
phase demodulation means is governed by the choice of brain wave characteristic to be
monitored. If desired, several different types of demodulators can be provided and used
alternately or at the same time.
The demodulated signal which is representative of the monitored brain wave activity is
passed through audio amplifiers 50 a, b, c which may be of conventional type where it is
amplified and routed to displays 58 a, b, c and a computer 60. The displays 58 a, b, c
present the raw brain wave signals from the amplifiers 50 a, b, c. The computer 60
processes the amplified brain wave signals to derive information suitable for viewing,
e.g., by suppressing, compressing, or expanding elements thereof, or combining them with
other information-bearing signals and presents that information on a display 62. The
displays can be conventional ones such as the types herebefore mentioned employing
electronic visual displays or mechanical plotters 58b. The computer can also be of
conventional type, either analog or digital, or a hybrid.
A profile of the entire brain wave emission pattern may be monitored or select areas of
the brain may be observed in a single measurement simply by altering the scan angle and
direction of the antennas. There is no physical contact between the subject and the
monitoring apparatus. The computer 60 also can determine a compensating waveform for
transmission to the brain 10 to alter the natural brain waves in a desired fashion. The
closed loop compensating system permits instantaneous and continuous modification of the
brain wave response pattern.
In performing the brain wave pattern modification function, the computer 60 can be
furnished with an external standard signal from a source 70 representative of brain wave
activity associated with a desired nuerological response. The region of the brain
responsible for the response is monitored and the received signal, indicative of the brain
wave activity therein, is compared with the standard signal. The computer 60 is programmed
to determine a compensating signal, responsive to the difference between the standard
signal and received signal. The compensating signal, when transmitted to the monitored
region of the brain, modulates the natural brain wave activity therein toward a
reproduction of the standard signal, thereby changing the neurological response of the
The computer 60 controls an auxiliary transmitter 64 which transmits the compensating
signal to the brain 10 of the subject via an antenna 66. The transmitter 64 is of the high
frequency type commonly used in radar applications. The antenna 66 can be similar to
antennas 41, 43 and 45 and can be combined with them. Through these means, brain wave
activity may be altered and deviations from a desired norm may be compensated. Brain waves
may be monitored and control signals transmitted to the brain from a remote station.
It is to be noted that the configuration described is one of many possibilities which may
be formulated without departing from the spirit of my invention. The transmitters can be
monostratic or bistatic. They also can be single, dual, or multiple frequency devices. The
transmitted signal can be continuous wave, pulse, FM, or any combination of these as well
as other transmission forms. Typical operating frequencies for the transmitters range from
1 MHz to 40 GHz but may be altered to suit the particular function being monitored and the
characteristics of the specific subject.
The individual components of the system for monitoring and controlling brain wave activity
may be of conventional type commonly employed in radar systems.
Various subassemblies of the brain wave monitoring and control apparatus may be added,
substituted or combined. Thus, separate antennas or a single multi-mode antenna may be
used for transmission and reception. Additional displays and computers may be added to
present and analyze select components of the monitored brain waves.
Modulation of the interference signal retransmitted by the brain may be of amplitude,
frequency and/or phase. Appropriate demodulators may be used to decipher the subject's
brain activity and select components of his brain waves may be analyzed by computer to
determine his mental state and monitor his thought processes.
As will be appreciated by those familiar with the art, apparatus and method of the subject
invention has numerous uses. Persons in critical positions such as drivers and pilots can
be continuously monitored with provision for activation of an emergency device in the
event of human failure. Seizures, sleepiness and dreaming can be detected. Bodily
functions such as pulse rate, heartbeat reqularity and others also can be monitored and
occurrences of hallucinations can be detected. The system also permits medical diagnoses
of patients, inaccessible to physicians, from remote stations.